Wednesday, 8 August 2012

world Top 12 poisonous snakes

1. Inland taipan ( 0.025 ) Australia

While I did say that I would not include multiple sub-species in this list, the incredible Inland Taipan deserves a spot of its own. It has the most toxic venom of any land snake in the world. The maximum yield recorded for one bite is 110mg, enough to kill about 100 humans, or 250,000 mice! With an LD/50 of 0.03mg/kg, it is 10 times as venomous as the Mojave Rattlesnake, and 50 times more than the common Cobra. Fortunately, the Inland Taipan is not particularly aggressive and is rarely encountered by humans in the wild. No fatalities have ever been recorded, though it could potentially kill an adult human within 45 minutes.

2. Eastern brown snake ( 0.053 ) Australia

Don’t let the innocuous name of this snake fool you, 1/14,000 of an ounce of its venom is enough to kill an adult human. Coming in a variety of species, the Eastern Brown snake is the most venomous. Unfortunately, its preferred habitat is also along the major population centers of Australia. The Brown snake is fast moving, can be aggressive under certain circumstances and has been known to chase aggressors and repeatedly strike at them. Even juveniles can kill a human. The venom contains both neurotoxins and blood coagulants. Fortunately for humans, less than half of bites contain venom and they prefer not to bite if at all possible. They react only to movement, so stand very still if you ever encounter one in the wild.

3. Coastal taipan ( 0.099 ) Australia

The Coastal Taipan is usually light olive to dark russet brown but sometimes dark grey to black. The head has an angular brow and is lighter coloured on the face. The eye is a reddish colour. The belly is cream and usually marked with orange or pink flecks. This species grows to 2.9 metres. Midbody scale rows 21 or 23; ventrals 220–250; anal single; subcaudals divided 57–75.
this is a dangerously venomous species with strongly neurotoxic venom. It possesses the third most toxic land snake venom known. Many human deaths have resulted from bites by this species.

4. Tiger snake ( 0.118 ) Australia

Found in Australia, the Tiger snake has a very potent neurotoxic venom. Death from a bite can occur within 30 minutes, but usually takes 6-24 hours. Prior to the development of antivenin, the fatality rate from Tiger snakes was 60-70%. Symptoms can include localized pain in the foot and neck region, tingling, numbness and sweating, followed by a fairly rapid onset of breathing difficulties and paralysis. The Tiger snake will generally flee if encountered, but can become aggressive when cornered. It strikes with unerring accuracy.

5. Black tiger snake ( 0.131 ) Australia

Black tiger snakes, or island tiger snakes (Notechis ater), are quite distinct from mainland tiger snakes. Most live on islands off the south coast of Australia and Tasmania, although some have a limited range on the mainland. Black tiger snakes (Notechis ater occidentalis) are found in the southwest corner of Western Australia, and Krefft’s tiger snakes (Notechis ater ater) live in a small area of the Flinders Ranges in South Australia. Peninsula tiger snakes (Notechis ater niger) are found on the Yorke and Eyre Peninsula and Kangaroo Island and neighbouring islands.

6. Beaked sea snake ( 0.164 ) Australia

It is a very dangerous snake that lives anywhere from the Persian Gulf to northern coastal Australia. This snake grows up to about 1.2 meters long. It eats mainly catfish and other sea life. It is quick to attack when bothered, and has been known to strike divers for no apparent reason. This is a very dangerous snake. It is responsible for more than half of all the sea snake bites, and 90% of all deaths related to them. All sea snakes are poisonous, but the bite is not painful and you may not even be able to see it! Be careful when swimming off the coast of Australia!

7. Death adder ( 0.400 ) Australia

The appropriately named Death Adder is found in Australia and New Guinea. They actually hunt and kill other snakes, including some on this list, usually via ambush. Death Adders look quite similar to vipers, in that they have triangular shaped heads and short, squat bodies. They typically inject around 40-100mg of venom with an LD of 0.4mg-0.5mg/kg. An untreated Death Adder bite is one of the most dangerous in the world. The venom is a neurotoxin. A bite causes paralysis and can cause death within 6 hours, due to respiratory failure. Symptoms generally peak within 24-48 hours. Antivenin is very successful in treating a bite from a Death Adder, particularly due to the relatively slow progression of symptoms, but before its development, a Death Adder bite had a fatality rate of 50%. With the quickest strike in the world, a Death Adder can go from strike position to striking and back again within 0.13 of a second.

8. Gwardar ( 0.473 ) Australia

The gwardar or western brown snake is distributed over most of Australia, with the exception of eastern New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania. Its range overlaps that of the eastern brown snake. Mostly active during the day, the gwardar has similar feeding habits to the common brown snake, but is said to be less aggressive than its eastern counterpart. The adult is usually olive to brown, and may have a dark head or a number of broad bands. An average clutch of 20 eggs is laid.

9. Australian copperhead ( 0.560 ) Australia

Australian Copperheads are a medium body snake solidly built with small heads averaging lengths between 1.2 to 1.8 meters (4 to 6 feet) in length. Color variations are many with skin tones ranging from a coppery brown color to light reddish brown, grey and dark brown with lighter abdomens. Some specimens, particularly in the Queensland area, have black scale coloring. Many Australian Copperhead snakes have the copper head coloring giving the snake its common name but, unlike the American Copperhead, this is not always a highly visible distinguishing feature.

10. Philippine Cobra ( 0.565 ) Asia

Most species of Cobra would not make this list; however the Philippine Cobra is the exception. Drop for drop, its venom is the most deadly of all the Cobra species, and they are capable of spitting it up to 3 metres. The venom is a neurotoxin which affects cardiac and respiratory function, and can cause neurotoxicity, respiratory paralysis and death in thirty minutes. The bite causes only minimal tissue damage. The neurotoxins interrupt the transmission of nerve signals by binding to the neuro-muscular junctions near the muscles. The symptoms might include headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dizziness, collapse and convulsions.

11. Dugite ( 0.660 ) Australia

The Dugite is a dangerous snake. The venom is neurotoxic although the dugite rarely envenoms when biting people. Most people seen in hospital after an attack do not require anti-venom treatment. Dugites will avoid people when they can, but will attack if surprised, particularly during mating period. Venomous bite symptoms include abdominal pain, breathing and swallowing difficulty, convulsions, hypotension, kidney failure. Can be fatal if no anti-venom treatment.

12. Papuan black snake ( 1.09 ) New Guinea

The Papuan Black Snake has a shiny to matt black back and a greyish belly. This species grows to 2 metres. Midbody scale rows 19 (rarely 21); ventrals 221–230; anal divided; subcaudals single at front, remainder divided, 49–63.This is a dangerously venomous snake with strongly neurotoxic and haemotoxic venom. If bitten, apply first aid and seek urgent medical attention. Lives in open monsoon forests in swampy areas. This species is active by day but also at dawn and dusk in hot weather.

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